Alternative technologies are being developed, including non-sputum-based tests to assist the detection of extrapulmonary disease.
This chapter does not present a compendium of information on toxicology or adverse effects of specific agents.
This latter information is better obtained from databases that are continually updated, as described in the last section of this chapter.
Moreover, the chapter does not attempt to set toxicology within specific subdisciplines, such as forensic toxicology.
It is the premise of the chapter that the information provided is relevant to all types of toxicological endeavours and to the use of toxicology in various medical specialities and fields.
Toxicology ranges from basic research investigations on the mechanism of action of toxic agents through the development and interpretation of standard tests characterizing the toxic properties of agents.
Toxicology provides important information for both medicine and epidemiology in understanding aetiology and in providing information as to the plausibility of observed associations between exposures, including occupations, and disease.However, a number of studies indicate that some infected persons revert to a PPD-negative status, giving weight to the argument that elimination of the organism by the host has occurred (33,73).In approximately 5 to 10% of latently infected persons, the infection will reactivate and cause active tuberculosis (71).This will enable appropriate placement of new diagnostic products in the healthcare system to support the control and eventual eradication of tuberculosis disease.Antibiotic resistance tests: Bacteria are streaked on dishes with white antibiotic impregnated disks.Toxicology is the study of poisons, or, more comprehensively, the identification and quantification of adverse outcomes associated with exposures to physical agents, chemical substances and other conditions.